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Case Studies

Dyslexia with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Case Study
Hani Zohra Muhamad
Educational Advisor & Senior Educational Therapist
Dyslexia Association of Singapore

Journal Article is reproduced from :
Asia Pacific Journal of Developmental Differences, Vol. 1, No. 2, July 2014, pp 238—252 
DOI: 10.3850/S2345734114000075

This article is a case study of a child with dyslexia and ADHD who was provided with behavioural strategies to cope in class which proved to be effective. Children who have dyslexia and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often face great challenges in school as their academic abilities are usually impeded by these two learning disorders. While dyslexia affects their literacy abilities, ADHD often affects their ability to pay attention and exercise executive functions. Children with ADHD are often found to be hyperactive, inattentive or a combination of both. On the other hand, these children often have normal to above average intelligence and can do very well academically if they are equipped with coping mechanisms. Physicians may suggest that children with ADHD be medically treated in order to curb their behaviour and perform better in school. However, these medications may contribute to undesirable side effects and this is the reason why many parents may disagree with having their children with ADHD under any form of medication.

Emotional and Behavioural Challenges in Children Diagnosed with Learning Difficulties
Tuty Elfira Abdul Razak
Senior Educational Therapist
Dyslexia Association of Singapore

Children who display emotional and behavioural difficulties may be viewed as being deviant and may warrant special intervention services. Deviance among children is most often defined and described as differences in aspects of behaviour, with subsequent assumptions about their associated cognitive and emotional capacities. When children also have a diagnosis of dyslexia and ADHD, it can be difficult to differentiate the causes and effects of their frustration. In this case study, a contract is used to stabilise the behaviour of an eight year old girl, and recommendations made for successful implementation in the educational setting.

“Children who suffer from both dyslexia and Emotional and Behavioural Disorder can be at heightened risk of failure, particularly when this is compounded by ADHD.”

Understanding Cognitive and Literacy Profiles to Enhance Literacy Interventions
Jae Tan
Educational Psychologist
Dyslexia Association of Singapore

This article highlights three differing cognitive and literacy profiles and suggests ways to understand and use test scores to enhance literacy interventions. Although the cases are not real, they reflect the various possible types of reading problems that typically occur in students.

Working with a Child with Mathematical Difficulties: A Case Study
Chong Lee Wong
Senior Educational Therapist

There is very little research in Singapore that examines children with mathematical issues, (Bunn, 2014). This chapter aims to provide an understanding of a Primary Two child who has been failing in his mathematics tests. His scores were often below twenty percent. In order to help the child, the education therapist looked into the child's error patterns in computation. In addition, this chapter also highlighted the therapist's attempts to use multi-sensory methods of teaching as well as Math Journaling in order to help the child in learning his mathematical concepts.

Speech and Language Impairment: A Case Study

Ho Shuet Lian
Senior Specialist Speech and Language Therapist
Dyslexia Association of Singapore

Boy C was 8 years and 4 months when he was diagnosed with significant language impairment with mild articulation disorder. He commenced speech and language therapy (SLT) in individual as well as a small group setting of two students three months later. Boy C was discharged from SLT after twenty weeks of 2 hours per week of intervention. He made good progress. At the end of the twenty weeks of intervention, it was observed that boy C was more confident in expressing himself and he sounded more fluent in English. Boy C also showed good improvement in his mid-year examinations at school.

The Impact of Drama on Dyslexia in the United Kingdom: A Case Study
Emeritus Professor Angela Fawcett
Academic Director
Dyslexia Association of Singapore

This case study is based on adult outcomes for children known to me with a specific interest in drama.

In drama, dyslexic children can unleash the creativity of their imaginations, and escape from teacher’s perceptions that they are lazy or un-cooperative. This is the secret – drama can be a real strength for children with dyslexia! At the Dyslexia association of Singapore, we have an outstanding record in providing just this type of magic to enable children to show their potential in a realm far from the literacy with which they struggle.

Dyslexia, Drama and the Importance of Success
Katrina Hewes
Bachelor of Creative Arts - Performance
Graduate Diploma in Primary Education
Certificate in Dyslexia Literacy and Teaching

Dear Teachers:

Don’t be afraid to use drama in your classroom. I talked about my own classroom experience with some trepidation. Any teacher who would walk into my classroom and see 30 students acting like a baboon squad at the zoo would be horrified. I chose to talk about it in the end as I saw it as a lesson that involved drama but also involved students meeting learning outcomes. I ask you to be comfortable letting kids be kids. I have seen students staring down at a worksheet tears welling up, they’ve been staring at it for some time now and they are too afraid to ask for help, I remember this vividly from my school days. Day after day of this weighs on their emotional well being. Offering drama in the classroom means students can meet outcomes without the additional stress of adhering to lines on a page. Consider it. Take the risk. Don’t be afraid.

Does Dyslexia Affect Daily Life?
Emeritus Professor Angela Fawcett
Academic Director
Dyslexia Association of Singapore

There has been much discussion recently on whether or not dyslexia is a disability that affects daily life, or whether it simply impacts on performance in literacy. I would like to share with you a list that was compiled by a friend, who is highly intelligent with a PhD in Science, but who has not disclosed dyslexia and wishes to remain anonymous. I can confirm that my husband David also shares many of these dyslexia incidents.


British Dyslexia Association—Adults and Employment

International Dyslexia Association—Adults Self-Assessment Tool

The Dyslexia Association of Singapore (DAS) is currently working towards a programme that will provide support for Adult Dyslexics, if you need further information we recommend the information on adult dyslexia support from our international dyslexia partners:

International Dyslexia Association:
British Dyslexia Association: