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          1.    Editorial Comment
          2.    Dyslexia: A Brief For Educators and Parents

Joseph K. Torgesen, 1* Barbara R. Forman 1 and Richard K. Wagner 1

1 Florida State University and Florida Centre for Reading Research  


Dyslexia is a term that has been applied since the early part of the 20th Century to many students with reading difficulties. The term comes from medicine, but its broadest application is within education. Many educators, however, remain confused about the term in spite of the fact that major advances in our understanding of dyslexia have been made through scientific research over the past 40 years. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe what is currently known about dyslexia, focusing particularly on methods of early identification, prevention, and remedial instruction.

          3.    Chinese Language and Remediation Support for Children with Dyslexia in Singapore

Shen Peixin Priscillia,1 & 2*  Liu Yimei 1 , Kong Yun Rui 1 , See Lay Yen 1 and Sha Lan 1

1 Dyslexia Association of Singapore

2 DAS Academy Ltd, Singapore


The research presented here is targeted towards a better understanding of how students with dyslexia learn Chinese language as a second language. The research and development consisted of a preliminary survey and two studies, to identify difficulties that are unique to dyslexia in learning Chinese and develop an effective intervention programme that caters to the needs of students. The first study identified significant impairments in visual processing in children at high risk of dyslexia, associated with significant deficits in phonetic decoding, in a sample of 45 nine‐year‐old children including students drawn from the Dyslexia Association of Singapore (DAS) and matched controls. The insights from this study were used to develop an intervention programme in the second study, where significant improvements in targeted skills were found for 16 children aged six to twelve.  Implications for further development are discussed. 


To read more about our Chinese Programme, please click here.

          4.    Factors related to reading comprehension weaknesses in Persian speaking primary school children

Amir Sadeghi, 1 & 2* John Everatt 2 and Brigid McNeill 2

1 Islamic Azad University, Damavand Branch (Iran)

2 University of Canterbury (New Zealand)


The work reported in this paper investigated potential influences of word‐level and understanding‐level processes on reading comprehension deficits identified in monolingual Persian primary school children. The research contrasted the performance of average comprehenders (N=173) with those with poor text reading comprehension scores (N=33) to identify underlying cognitive deficits associated with text comprehension problems in this language. Two measures of reading comprehension (one involving passage reading and question answering, the other sentence completion) were used to identify reading comprehension weaknesses. Poor comprehenders were considered as those who performed within the bottom 15% of the cohort in both measures. These poor comprehenders were then divided into those with weak decoding skills (one standard deviation below average on a measure of non‐word reading) and those without. The performance of the selected groups on measures of phonological and orthographic processing, linguistic ability and speed of processing was contrasted. Findings indicated that children with comprehension problems showed difficulties in language skills related to listening comprehension. Those with additional weaknesses in decoding also showed deficits in phonological areas, whereas those without decoding weaknesses were more likely to show additional problems with orthographic processing. Implications for theoretical perspectives on reading comprehension deficits and practice will be

Key words: Reading comprehension; Poor comprehenders; Persian children 

          5.    A Meta-Analysis of Technology-Based Interventions on the Phonological Skills of Children with Dyslexia

Thomas W. T. Sim 1* and Zachary M. Walker 2

DAS Academy, Singapore  

2 National Institute of Education, Singapore


There is a growing awareness of the need to understand how technology can help in education, especially in the area of special educational needs. The purpose of this meta‐analysis is to synthesise findings from independent studies gathered by a systematic review of the literature on the effectiveness of technology‐based interventions on the phonological skills of children diagnosed with dyslexia in English. Keywords for the literature search were selected that best represented the research area: technology, computer, elearning, mobile learning, ICT; intervention, instruction, remediation, therapy; phonology, phonological skills, spelling; and dyslexia. These key terms were used for the computerised search of five databases: Academic Search Premier, Education Research Complete, ERIC, PsycARTICLES and PsycINFO. The studies that met the inclusion criteria were further meta‐analysed for effect sizes with a fixed effects approach weighted by sample sizes. The inclusion criteria were that the studies must involve a technology‐based intervention, participants of the studies must be formally diagnosed with dyslexia in English, outcome measures used must include at least one measure of phonological skills in reading, and studies must utilise a pre‐test‐post‐test experimental design and include means, standard deviations, and sample sizes. There were a total of four studies that met all criteria and these four studies employed six different technology‐based interventions. 

All four studies had significant results showing that technology‐based interventions positively influenced phonological skills. A grand total of 157 participants across these four studies returned a significant result for weighted pooled estimates of overall effect size on non‐word decoding (a measure of phonological skills) to be d = 0.56 (ranging from d = 0.17 to 1.38), which is a medium effect size of the technology‐based intervention. Thus, technology‐based interventions is an effective method of remediating phonological skills of children with dyslexia.


Keywords: technology, intervention, therapy, dyslexia, phonological, reading in the
identification of pre-school children “at risk” of dyslexia, albeit with some adaptations
for use in the local context.

          6.    The importance of Rapid Naming Skills as a Predictor of Reading Acquisition: A Theoretical Overview

Kadi Lukanenok 1*


1   Tallinn University, Estonia


This article presents a theoretical overview of the concept of rapid naming skills as one of the critical sub‐skills of reading acquisition. Rapid automatized naming is recognized as a relevant marker in early reading in addition to phonological awareness and verbal working memory.  This paper describes how the relationship between rapid automatized naming and reading skills affects specific reading difficulties within the framework of existing developmental and cognitive research. Finally, future implications for research and applications in the educational field are provided.   

Keywords: naming skills, rapid automatized naming skills, reading acquisition, specific reading difficulties  

          7.    Could pre-school eye movements contribute to diagnosis of reading and/or dyslexia? A longitudinal case study

Jiri Jost 1 *

1 University of South Bohemia, Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic


The author studied the relationship between eye movements of a preschool child (boy) and his subsequent development as a reader. The aim was to contribute to findings about whether there is information within eye movements about future reading development and its anomalies. The case report showed that long‐term, partial weakening of eye movements correlated with long‐term, partial weakening of reading development. With caution it can be stated that examinations of eye movements may contribute to prognostic considerations in the field of reading development and may become part of preschool screening.  

Keywords: dyslexia, reading, eye movements

          8.    Dyslexia with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: a case study

Hani Zohra Muhamad 1*

1  Dyslexia Association of Singapore


This article is a case study of a child with dyslexia and ADHD who was provided with behavioural strategies to cope in class which proved to be effective. Children who have dyslexia and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) often face great challenges in school as their academic abilities are usually impeded by these two learning disorders. While dyslexia affects their literacy abilities, ADHD often affects their ability to pay attention and exercise executive functions. Children with ADHD are often found to be hyperactive, inattentive or a combination of both. On the other hand, these children often have normal to above average intelligence and can do very well academically if they are equipped with coping mechanisms. Physicians may suggest that children with ADHD be medically treated in order to curb their behaviour and perform better in school. However, these medications may contribute to undesirable side effects and this is the reason why many parents may disagree with having their children with ADHD under any form of medication.