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The effectiveness of memory games in improving reading fluency and reading comprehension of children with dyslexia
How I guide a child with language development delay
Developing a Dyslexia-Friendly Environment in classroom
The effects of font type on reading accuracy and fluency in Japanese children with developmental dyslexia
Profile of children with Expressive Language Delay in Zainab Hospital, Pekanbaru, Indonesia
Level of Understanding Dyslexia Among Indonesian Professionals, Teachers and Society
Association Between Screen Time and Expressive Language Delay Children in Zainab Hospital Pekanbaru, Indonesia
Risk Factors Identification in Children with Expressive Language Delay in Zainab Hospital Pekanbaru Indonesia
“I Read and write!” Evaluation a Multi-sensory Structured Language (MSL) Program for Arabic
Constructivist-oriented approach for Teaching and Learning for children with special needs in the mainstream primary school
Resource Room – Remedial education for children with SLD within the school premises – the need of the hour
Rolling out an evidence-based Intervention for struggling learners and providing professional development for teachers through a global partnership in India: A pilot project.
The Imagery-Language Foundation: Teaching All Children to Read and Comprehend
Effects​ ​of​ ​Executive​ ​Attention​ ​Deficits​ ​in​ ​Children​ ​with​ ​Dyslexia:​ ​Beyond​ ​Phonology​ ​in bilingual​ ​dyslexics

 

The effectiveness of memory games in improving reading fluency and reading comprehension of children with dyslexia


This research study examines the effectiveness of memory games intervention in improving reading fluency and reading comprehension of children with Dyslexia. A total of 22 students diagnosed with Dyslexia participated in the research study. First, it was examined whether there are any transfer effects to reading fluency and reading comprehension on children with Dyslexia after going through the memory games intervention. Next, it was explored whether the lower ability students made more improvements than the higher ability students. Unfortunately, the memory games intervention did not produce any results. The reading fluency and reading comprehension of children with Dyslexia did show significant improvements after going through the memory games intervention. However, the lower ability students did make more improvements as compared to the higher ability students. Even though no significant results were found in this research study, there are room for improvements that can be made to find out the true effectiveness of memory games intervention in improving reading fluency and reading comprehension of children with Dyslexia.

SOLEHA RAZALI
Senior Educational Therapist, Dyslexia Association of Singapore, Singapore

Soleha Razali is a Senior Educational Therapist and Math Dual Specialist with the DAS and her students range from primary and secondary school levels. She is interested in coming up with educational games that will benefit her students in terms of literacy and also overall learning experience. She has completed her Masters of Arts in Special Educational Needs (MA SEN) with the University of South Wales (USW) in UK. She is also a member of the Register of Educational Therapists Asia (RETA).

How I guide a child with language development delay


A 5 years old focus child who is currently studying in Kindergarten 1. Some learning activities done one to one which focus on learning through engaging him in the activities and toys that the boy likes. Throughout the activities, I have followed this method: - Constantly ask questions to assess and to check the child’s understanding, - Then prompt him if he cannot answer. - After prompting, wait for 5 seconds for his response. - Then praise him for attempting and answering correctly. Activity 1: Asks the child to talk about his cars that he is playing. Then tell him that I am writing down his story so that we could read his story again after I have written them down. He continues to say while I write down. After writing down we go through and read the story told by him. After a few rounds, try to point out a few words that he is not sure and after he has familiarized, ask him if he would like to copy the story in his own handwriting. He complies and through this activity, he learns talking, reading and writing. Activity 2: Asks the child to pick up a book from a few pre-selected books that he likes. Then read together with the child. Pointing to the words one by one on each page of the book. Read together with the child. After a few rounds, asks the child to read, while helping him to point each word. Through this activity, he learns new words and reading a book on his own.

KONG WAI KUEN
Singapore

Kong Wai Kuen has been a librarian in special libraries and a research assistant with NIE. She is currently doing practicum, as a student in Specialist Diploma ECE. 

Developing A Dyslexia – Friendly Environment in classroom


This paper is aimed for teachers who have heard the term dyslexic, know they may have students within their class who possibly could be dyslexic but have no further knowledge of how to adapt their teaching style to assist them.
The presentations introduce teacher to dyslexia, and shares ways teachers can adjust their teaching, taking very little additional time, to include dyslexic students and at the same time reach many other students with learning difficulties.
The presentation details components of a creating an environment which embraces the use of the word dyslexia; promotes a clear and practical valid understanding of dyslexia for young teachers.
A dyslexia-friendly classroom environment encourages dyslexic students to follow their strengths and interests.
This paper identifies how the “classroom” and “institution” can be made dyslexia friendly, thus creating an inclusive learning environment. When teachers use the strategies they not only help dyslexic students learn, but engage and improve learning for all students in the class. Additionally, a dyslexia-friendly environment allows educators to be alert to problems and identify children who might be dyslexic.
This paper shares guidelines about the changes we can make in the physical environment, adapting new strategies to implement in our classroom. Help the teacher to choose the right tool that fit each student’s needs as a learner.
Whilst this paper is aimed at supporting dyslexic individuals, many of the strategies suggested here would be equally appropriate for those who are not dyslexic as well as those who are. The aim here is to suggest a range of approaches and strategies that can be adapted to suit the needs of many individuals.

SUDHA RAMASAMY
Special Educator, Madras Dyslexia Association, Chennai, India

Mrs. Sudha Ramasamy is a special educator working with Madras Dyslexia Association with a passion for teaching and an aim to make a difference to the lives of children. Her hands on approach not only enable the children to grasp concepts easily, but her artistic presentation give the children a holistic approach to the subject.

The effects of font type on reading accuracy and fluency in Japanese children with developmental dyslexia


Purpose : The purpose of this study is to clarify the effects of different types of Japanese font on reading performance in Japanese speaking children with developmental dyslexia.
Methods : Participants included 36 children with typical development and 23 children with developmental dyslexia from fourth to sixth grades elementary school student. We conducted rapid reading tasks and hearing of the introspectiveness. In this study, we used four kinds of stimuli: two scripts (paragraph and kana non-words) by two font types (Round-Gothic and Mincho style font). We asked participants to “read the words and paragraph as fast as you can without making mistakes”. We analyzed duration time of reading, number of errors and self-corrections. After the reading tasks, participants were required to answer which font type was easy to read.
Results : Typical development and developmental dyslexic group did not show significant differences in duration time of reading, number of errors and self-corrections between two types of font. On the other hand, the answer in subjective readability from the group with developmental dyslexia showed significant differences and children with developmental dyslexia had impression that Round-Gothic as the font easily to read.
Discussion : In this study, Round-Gothic and Mincho style fonts did not improve reading performance for children with dyslexia. However, Round-Gothic style font tended to be recognized “readable font” subjectively by children with developmental dyslexia. Our results suggest that subjective readability for the Round-Gothic style font contribute to reduce mental burden of reading among children with developmental dyslexia.
TAKASHI GOTOH
Faculty of Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Japan
AKIRA UNO (DR)
Professor, Tsukuba University, Japan
President, Dyslexia Association of Japan, Japan
Akira Uno PhD. is a Professor of University of Tsukuba and President of Japan Dyslexia Research Association (JDRA). He was a co-founder of JDRA in 2001. He is specialized for reading/spelling development in Japanese and developmental and acquired dyslexia. He is also studying brain dysfunction and structure in children with developmental dyslexia. Most of his foreign PhD students from overseas, such as Tunisia, Philippine, Korea, Taiwan, are studying cross linguistic study among different writing system. From April in 2017, he is also Principal of the experimental Special Needs Education School for Physically Challenged.
NAOKI TANI
Faculty of Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Japan

Profile of Children with Expressive Language Delay in Zainab Hospital Pekanbaru, Indonesia


A language disorder is an impairment that makes it hard for someone to find the right words and form clear sentences when speaking. It can also make it difficult to understand what another person says. There are three kinds of language disorders. Receptive language issues involve difficulty understanding what others are saying. Expressive language issues involve difficulty expressing thoughts and ideas. Mixed receptive-expressive language issues involve difficulty understanding and using spoken language.
The objective of the study is to identify characteristically related to children and their parents associated with expressive language delay.
The study conducted with all the children in Zainab Hospital Pekanbaru Indonesia diagnosed as expressive language disorder in 2017. Protocol for the Identification of Risk Factor for Language and Speech Disorders (PIFRAL) was used for this study
Descriptive statistics and student’s t test were used to analyze the frequency and relationship between between risk factor.
The onset of the complaint occurred after [±SD] 41,76 ± 12,108 months old and mostly are male gender (72.7%).
Most of them (54,5%) whose mother had just completed high school and 60.6% of a mother in the category “doesn’t work.
Out of the 33 participants, 20 were the first child in the family (60.0%). Deleterious oral habits (64%,) and bilingual (51.5%) were significant to incidence of expressive language disorder in that children.
Conclusion: Most of children are the first boys. They are mainly raised by a mother with low levels of education and do not work. But many of them have bad oral habits , bilingual and this are significant.

DHITA NATASHI DWIRIYANTI
Zainab Hospital Pekanbaru, Indonesia

Dhita Natasha Dwiriyanti Hardi is one of general practitioner (GP) in Zainab Hospital Pekanbaru who interest in children development. She leads her career as a GP in growth and development division, and Breastfeeding Counselor to the Lactation Centre of Zainab. Presently, she is a member of “Cinta ASI Riau”, the nonprofit organization which concerns in promoting and protecting breastfeeding in Pekanbaru in subdivision research and development.

DIAN LARASSATI
Zainab Hospital Pekanbaru, Indonesia

Dian Larassati is one of the general practitioners in the mother and child hospital of Zainab Pekanbaru, Indonesia. Because of her concern about growth and development of children, makes her attend various training and workshops related with. He is now one of the breastfeeding and weaning food counselors and as a Certified Infant Massage Instructor at Zainab hospital. He is also a member of “Cinta ASI Riau”, the nonprofit organization which concern in promoting and protecting breastfeeding in Pekanbaru.

YOAN UTAMI PUTRI
Zainab Hospital Pekanbaru, Indonesia

Yoan Utami Putri is one of general practioner (GP) in Zainab Hospital Pekanbaru who interest in children development. She leads her career as a GP in growth and development division, Head of Patient Safety Committee, and Breastfeeding Counselor to the Lactation Centre of Zainab. Presently, she is member of “Cinta ASI Riau”, the nonprofit organization which concern in promoting and protecting breastfeeding in Pekanbaru.

Level of Understanding Dyslexia Among Indonesian Professionals, Teachers and Society


This study is a simple survey upon understanding level of Indonesian people regarding dyslexia done within 6 months started in May 2017, using Google form questionnaires. Total respondents were 1178 persons, coming from various islands of Indonesia. Most of them were teachers, female, aged ranged 30-39 years old, bachelor degree. Approximately 20% respondents believed that dyslexia had low IQ and therefore they would put dyslexic students in special class set for low IQ students.

Nearly 750 respondents knew that dyslexia is a genetic based condition, while the rest thought that it was due to poor parenting, poor teaching, impairment of spine, and TV/Gadget exposure. About one third of respondents believed that poor diet, finger hypotonic and impairment of spine were the underlying medical problems in dyslexia. M

ost of respondents (80.5%) knew that dyslexia often has comorbid, and 50.8% believed that the comorbidities were Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD). While the rest believed that dyslexia may occur with Intellectual Disability, Autism, Spine Impairment, and Speech Delayed.

Most of the respondent (77.6%) still believed in fancy treatment for dyslexia which was Sensory Integration Therapy (51.7%), diet, hiking, riding dolphins, colored lenses, while only 22.4% understood that dyslexia needs remedial intervention.

Most of the respondents (89.8%) agreed that dyslexia could be identified early, nevertheless one fifth of respondents still believed that early identification would healed dyslexia.

Conclusion: The level of understanding of dyslexia among Indonesian people across professional backgrounds are still very poor. Further education to those professionals is a must.

Keywords: dyslexia, teacher, professional, Indonesian people


KRISTIANTINI DEWI
Dyslexia Association of Indonesia, Indonesia

Kristiantini is a pediatrician of two dyslexic children, who has been working with children with special needs for more than one decade, including works very intensively with dyslexia children, parents and teachers too. She and her team developed some IT based media/system such as : Early Identification Tool for pre-school children and Lexipal, in order to help dyslexia children get identified and intervened as early as 5 years old. She also runs special class which is set for severe dyslexic learners  and regularly conduct training and workshop for parents, medical professionals and teachers.


PURBOYO SOLEK
Dyslexia Association of Indonesia, Indonesia


Association Between Screen Time and Expressive Language Delay Children in Zainab Hospital Pekanbaru, Indonesia


The use of interactive screen media such as televisions, smartphone and tablets by young children is increasing rapidly. The American Academy of Pediatric (AAP) recommends that children ≥ 2 years of age should have < 2 hours of screen time per day and that children< 2 years of age be discouraged from television watching. Recommendations for use by toddlers are crucial, because effect of screen time are potentially more pronounced in this group. Therefore, need to identify screen time factors that may have impact on language development. This study investigated the association between children’s exposure screen time and expressive language delay The source of data was collected in Zainab Hospital during 2017. The subjects of this study were children with expressive language delay. In addition, normal children were used as control subject. Linguistic ability were reviewing by language Milestone and Denver II, The data were analyzed by chi-square test. Odds ratios and 95% confidence interval were presented. There were 24 boys and 19 girls; mean 41,8 ± 12,108 month of the case group and 17 boys and 14 girls, mean 36,45 ± 12,129 month of the control group were enrolled. Children with ≥ 3 hours screen time had around 3.2 times (OR 3,167 95% CI: 1.139-8.806) more risk of expressive language delay. Children with expressive language delay spent more time screen time than normal children (3,61 ± 0,0609 hours/day vs.2,00 ± 0,949 hours/day; p= 0,025). Conclusion: children had screen time more than 3 hours /day were approximately 3,2 times likely to have expressive language delay than normal children.

DIAN LARASSATI

Zainab Hospital Pekanbaru, Indonesia

Dian Larassati is one of the general practitioners in the mother and child hospital of Zainab Pekanbaru, Indonesia. Because of her concern about growth and development of children, makes her attend various training and workshops related with. He is now one of the breastfeeding and weaning food counselors and as a Certified Infant Massage Instructor at Zainab hospital. He is also a member of “Cinta ASI Riau”, the nonprofit organization which concern in promoting and protecting breastfeeding in Pekanbaru.

YOAN UTAMI PUTRI
Zainab Hospital Pekanbaru, Indonesia

Yoan Utami Putri is one of general practioner (GP) in Zainab Hospital Pekanbaru who interest in children development. She leads her career as a GP in growth and development division, Head of Patient Safety Committee, and Breastfeeding Counselor to the Lactation Centre of Zainab. Presently, she is member of “Cinta ASI Riau”, the nonprofit organization which concern in promoting and protecting breastfeeding in Pekanbaru.

DHITA NATASHI DWIRIYANTI

Zainab Hospital Pekanbaru, Indonesia

Dhita Natasha Dwiriyanti Hardi is one of general practitioner (GP) in Zainab Hospital Pekanbaru who interest in children development. She leads her career as a GP in growth and development division, and Breastfeeding Counselor to the Lactation Centre of Zainab. Presently, she is a member of “Cinta ASI Riau”, the nonprofit organization which concerns in promoting and protecting breastfeeding in Pekanbaru in subdivision research and development.

Risk Factors Identification in Children with Expressive Language Delay in Zainab Hospital Pekanbaru Indonesia


Speech and language development represent a meaningful indicator of a child’s development and cognitive ability. Identification of children at risk for development delay may lead to early intervention services and family assistance at young age. This study investigated the risk factors of children and their parent related to the expressive language delay. The case-control study included 33 children with expressive language delay and 31 normal children. Expressive language delay was diagnosed by reviewing language milestone and Denver II. The following risk factors were identified by using PIFRAL (Protocol to Identify Risk Factors for Language Speech Related Changes). The differences of relationship between risk factors were tested by chi square test. The sample in this study was adjusted in 2 models. Model 1 was adjusted for due date above 37 weeks group. Model 2 was additionally adjusted for birth weight above 2500 grams group. The significant risk factors in model 1 were effects of maternal education’s level (p= 0.011), positive family history (p= 0.010), jaundice (p= 0.036), deleterious oral habit (p=0.0001), time spending with mother (p=0.0001), and speaking more than one language (p= 0.005). In model 2, the significant risk factors were effects of maternal education’s level (p= 0.037), deleterious oral habit (p=0.0001), time spending with mother (p=0.0001), and speaking more than one language (p= 0.005). Based on this study, the significant risk factors for children with expressive language disorder in a term and normal birth weight were deleterious oral habit, time spending with mother, speaking more than one language and maternal education’s level.

YOAN UTAMI PUTRI
Zainab Hospital Pekanbaru, Indonesia

Yoan Utami Putri is one of general practioner (GP) in Zainab Hospital Pekanbaru who interest in children development. She leads her career as a GP in growth and development division, Head of Patient Safety Committee, and Breastfeeding Counselor to the Lactation Centre of Zainab. Presently, she is member of “Cinta ASI Riau”, the nonprofit organization which concern in promoting and protecting breastfeeding in Pekanbaru.

DIAN LARASSATI
Zainab Hospital Pekanbaru, Indonesia

Dian Larassati is one of the general practitioners in the mother and child hospital of Zainab Pekanbaru, Indonesia. Because of her concern about growth and development of children, makes her attend various training and workshops related with. He is now one of the breastfeeding and weaning food counselors and as a Certified Infant Massage Instructor at Zainab hospital. He is also a member of “Cinta ASI Riau”, the nonprofit organization which concern in promoting and protecting breastfeeding in Pekanbaru.

DHITA NATASHI DWIRIYANTI
Zainab Hospital Pekanbaru, Indonesia

Dhita Natasha Dwiriyanti Hardi is one of general practitioner (GP) in Zainab Hospital Pekanbaru who interest in children development. She leads her career as a GP in growth and development division, and Breastfeeding Counselor to the Lactation Centre of Zainab. Presently, she is a member of “Cinta ASI Riau”, the nonprofit organization which concerns in promoting and protecting breastfeeding in Pekanbaru in subdivision research and development.

“I Read and write!” Evaluation a Multi-sensory Structured Language (MSL) Program for Arabic


“I Read and Write!” is an individualized, structured language training program and materials for teaching persons with moderate to severe difficulties with learning to read and spell in Arabic. The program is designed for use in a one-to-one or small group (two-three students) tutorial setting and focus on Modern Standard Arabic generic to the Gulf Region. Areas of literacy targeted are early reading skills (phonological awareness and letter awareness), decoding/encoding, fluency, vocabulary and comprehension, as well as written expression skills. While the material will be geared for Chall’s reading stages 1-3 (approximate reading and spelling grade levels K/1 through grade 7/8), The program’s broad skills goals will be indexed to key curricular benchmarks for Gulf region language curricula for grades 1-9; the purpose of doing this is to demonstrate the curricular relevance of the materials to teachers and school administrators throughout the Gulf, but the skills are relevant for all other Arab countries and learners of Arabic.

OMAR HASSAN
Deputy Head of Training Unit, Center for Child Evaluation and Teaching, Kuwait
Omar Hassan, Deputy-Head of Training Unit at the Center for Child Evaluation and Teaching, Kuwait. His experience in the field of learning disabilities in terms of training and teaching More than 23 years, where he presented many specialized courses in the field of learning disabilities and remedial teaching strategies for students with LD.  Omar received his master's degree in "dyslexia" from the University of Ain Shams - Egypt, and now he is Candidate for Ph.D. from same University.  Participated in the preparation of the first intervention program to teach reading and writing in Arabic skills named: "I read and write!" for dyslexic people, and He is in charge for training to use this program.  Participated in the preparation of a set of electronic screening programs for LD students.  Developed a Group of electronic games that helps students to develop Phonological awareness and attention skills.  Certified Trainer for CORT Learning Thinking Program.  ISTD Expert Trainer, International Society for Trainer & Developers.  Certified in Orton-Gillingham Training, Accredited by CATT (O-G), Canadian Academy of Therapeutic Tutors.  Certified in Rave-O Instructional intervention program Accredited by (IDA), International Dyslexia Association.

Constructivist-oriented approach for Teaching and Learning for children with special needs in the mainstream primary school


This is an autoethnographic inquiry into the quest to explore the impact of constructivist-oriented teaching on children with special needs in a mainstream primary school in Singapore. Situated in a social constructivist paradigm of inquiry and using a variety of qualitative methods for information generation, this research is two-fold. By employing information gleaned from multiple interviews with both students and teachers, the research explores the current issues and problems faced by this particular group of children in their learning in the mainstream classroom. Rising from the input of this initial generation of information, this research further explored the autoethnographical journey of the researcher as a teacher who started as a novice in constructivist-oriented teaching, illustrating the researcher’s attempts to use the elements of constructivist-oriented teaching to resolve the issues and problems of children disabled in learning in her classes. The researcher’s journey continued four years later, with her being a more experienced constructivist-oriented teacher. Her mode of teaching is grounded on Lev Vygotsky’s social constructivist views, especially those articulated in his theory of dysontogenesis, which emphasises the empowerment of individuals rather than a focus on their impairments or deficiencies, suggesting how children with special needs should be offered the opportunity to maximise their potential. Information generated from this research is presented as an autoethnographical novel, which is a detailed appraisal-based description of the educational experience. This part of the research concludes that constructivist-oriented approaches offer a viable platform for the teaching of children with special needs, making them more enabled, although all educational stakeholders have to be adequately equipped to sustain such approaches. A framework is then proposed for teachers who can exercise multiple roles to effectively work with children with special needs.

OW YEONG WAI MANG (DR)
Teaching Fellow, NIE (Early Childhood and Special Needs Education Academic Group) 2018 and beyond / HOD (Student Well-being), Henry Park Primary School (2006-2017)

Resource Room – Remedial education for children with SLD within the school premises – the need of the hour


Children with Specific Learning Disabilities need timely remedial support/ intervention in their school going years to optimize their academic performances Lack of this support creates increasing discrepancy between their abilities and performances.Children fail to perform to their full potential despite being of average to above average intelligence.They flounder and is lost. Such remedial support is not easily accessible but when established within the school environment can make a vital difference to this scenario and is beneficial in multiple ways. This presentation advocates the inclusion of a Remedial center in the mainstream school to support the education process of a child with Dyslexia to ensure that no child to fall through the cracks. First it highlights how such a centre can create a Dyslexia Sensitive Educational Environment. It focuses on the need to identify and to provide remediation to the child with Specific Learning Disabilities within the school milieu. Then the paper uses case studies of SLD children in mainstream schools where MDA has set up resource room centres to demonstrate the positive impact of the project on critical stakeholders like the management of the school, parents and teachers and importantly details how the strategies used for teaching the students have universal implications and could valuably benefit all students in the classroom. The paper lastly discusses the process of setting up of such a centre.It presents evidence to show that running a remedial centre within the school campus is sustainable, scalable, replicable and is pivotal to supporting students with SLD in their critical years of learning.

Vilasini Diwakar

Vilasini Diwakar has been working in this field for the past 20 years. She has experience of teaching both the junior children with the remediation using multisensory methods based on Orton Gillingham approach and the preparing the senior secondary children to appear for their NIOS exams. She is a post graduate in English Language and has done her Counselling and Psychotherapy course. She has been associated with MDA since 1997, started off as a special educator for junior students, before becoming coordinator of Madras Dyslexia Association in 2005. She took on the challenge of starting resource room centres in mainstream schools in 2014. She has set up 40 centres in and around Chennai, TamilNadu. She is a faculty in the Teacher Training Activity of MDA and specializes in the "Spelling" segment. She is in charge of the academic content of the latest project undertaken by MDA - Digitization of teaching strategies for SLD students for mainstream teachers.

Mala Raju Natarajan

A special educator with previous experience in software & technology. Is using this background to coordinate MDA's effort to leverage technology to reach out to larger number of dyslexics- -MDA's key vision. Some of the key projects are : # digitization of MDA's training program, #computerisation of workflow process of student assessment, admission and skill building to get a 360 ° view of the child's progress.

Rolling out an evidence-based Intervention for struggling learners and providing professional development for teachers through a global partnership in India: A pilot project.


We describe a pilot partnership between the Hospital for Sick Children’s Empower™ Reading Program (Toronto, Canada), a set of research-based literacy programs for children with reading disabilities, and the Dr. Anjali Morris Foundation (AMF) (Pune, India), a leader in services for Indian students at risk for LD and in teacher professional development. In June 2016, 10 AMF teachers were trained by the first author in the Empower™ Reading Decoding and Spelling (DS) program, which focuses on foundational literacy skills. Implementation of this 110-lesson program was conducted at AMF with 60 struggling readers. Pre-, mid- and post-program results are available for 40 students who completed the program. Standard scores on the W-J Letter-Word Identification and Word Attack subtests demonstrate considerable improvement in decoding and word identification skills, with average standard scores on Letter-Word Identification increasing by more than a standard deviation, and by almost two standard deviations on Word Attack. By post-testing, students improved by an average of 28 test words on an experimental measure of multi-syllabic word reading. These positive results led to the scale-up of Empower’s teacher PD starting in June 2017; 21 additional teachers from AMF and five schools are being trained and three AMF teachers are being trained in the Comprehension and Vocabulary EmpowerTM Program. Preliminary results of this expansion will be available by June 2018. This partnership may inform future literacy intervention practices globally, providing programming and teacher PD in low- and middle-income countries, and building capacity to help those who struggle with literacy learning.

Maria De Palma
Ms. De Palma is an Empower™ Reading Senior Manager and Trainer for the Learning Disabilities Research Program (LDRP) at The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Canada. During her 22 years with the LDRP, she has coordinated several systems-based research studies and is one of the managers of Empower™ Reading. She has led the expansion of Empower™Reading globally, including to the Dr. Anjali Morris Foundation, in Pune India, and has trained and mentored teachers, onsite and remotely, in India to deliver the remedial reading program. Ms. De Palma is also a trainer/mentor for teachers in Canada in other locations globally.

Dr. Uma Kulkarni
Dr. Uma Kulkarni, a pediatrician, is the CEO of the Dr. Anjali Morris Foundation (AMF). She served in the Armed Forces for over a decade. Under her leadership, the AMF has grown from a centre that provides academic assistance to children who face multiple learning challenges in the classroom, to one that also incorporates cutting-edge research based practices in all initiatives. Presently, apart from providing direct services to struggling learners, AMF provides technical assistance to educational entities, conducts teacher orientation programs, and spearheads the Pune LD Forum, a collaboration between Pune-based professionals in the field of learning disorders.

Dr. Maureen W. Lovett
Dr. Maureen Lovett is a Senior Scientist in the Neurosciences and Mental Health Program at The Hospital for Sick Children and a Professor of Paediatrics and Medical Sciences at the University of Toronto. She is Founder and Director of the hospital’s Learning Disabilities Research Program. She, her team, and colleagues have contributed to learning disabilities research and practice for more than three decades, creating interventions for children and teens with severe reading disabilities, evaluating their efficacy in controlled designs, and scaling interventions up in school systems.

The Imagery-Language Foundation: Teaching All Children to Read and Comprehend


Based on 32 years of instructional experience with 45,000 at-risk readers, we know that the dual coding of imagery and language is critical for language comprehension and word reading (Lindamood-Bell Learning Processes, 2017). Imagery is a basic sensory-cognitive function connecting us to the language we hear and the print we read. There are two distinct types of imagery—symbol imagery and concept imagery—intrinsic to word reading, orthographic processing, and reading comprehension. This presentation examines the effect of imagery-based, sensory-cognitive instruction on word reading and comprehension in children with reading difficulties. A consistent, repeated finding is that students with reading difficulties have shown significant word reading and comprehension improvements with imagery-based sensory-cognitive instruction. Do these same improvements hold true for students diagnosed with dyslexia or autism spectrum disorders? Behavioral and neurological research validates the imagery-language connection resulting in lasting effects on word attack, word recognition, comprehension and specific areas of brain function in at-risk readers, including students with dyslexia or autism spectrum disorders (Eden et al., 2004, Oulade et al., 2013, Krafnick et al., 2015, Murdaugh et al., 2015, Murdaugh & Maximo et al., 2015, Christodoulou et al., 2015, Romeo et al., 2017). Supported by Dual Coding Theory (Paivio, 1979), key research findings, and 32 years of instructional experience, this session reveals that imagery is a primary sensory-cognitive power source that can be developed and brought to consciousness for reading independence in children, including struggling readers, and those previously diagnosed with dyslexia or autism spectrum disorder.

Angelica Benson, Ed.M.
For the last 21 years, Angelica Benson has worked for Lindamood-Bell Learning Processes - a world leader in research and remediation for specific learning disabilities, including dyslexia and autism spectrum disorder. She has had many leadership roles, including Learning Centre Director, Associate Director of Development, Professional Workshop Presenter and Director of Public Relations. She also served as Project Director overseeing the intervention and research components related to Lindamood-Bell’s participation in a randomized, controlled study of dyslexic students receiving fMRI’s at Georgetown University’s Center for the Study of Learning (featured in the August 2011 issue of NeuroImage). In addition, she has worked with dozens of schools in the USA and UK to implement Lindamood-Bell® research-validated programmes and school improvement models. Angelica Benson is currently the Director of International Development for Lindamood-Bell and is based in their Del Mar, California Learning Centre. She is a frequent Lindamood-Bell representative at national and international conferences, presenting research and information on a variety of topics including reading instruction, dyslexia, autism spectrum disorder, and most recently at New Zealand’s first ever conference on dyscalculia. Angelica holds a Master of Education degree from Harvard University Graduate School of Education and a Bachelor of Arts degree in Psychology from the University of California, San Diego.

Andy Russell
Mr. Andy Russell has served as the Centre Director in both the Double Bay and Chatswood Lindamood-Bell® Learning Centres in the Sydney area. He is currently the Centre Director for the Double Bay Learning Centre. Andy has also led Lindamood-Bell Seasonal Learning Clinics in Europe (Geneva, Switzerland), Australia (Melbourne, Brisbane, Windsor, and Darwin), and Asia (Tokyo, Singapore), and is working to expand Seasonal Learning Clinic locations to New Zealand (Christchurch) and other areas in the region. In 2016 and 2017, Mr. Russell was selected to present Lindamood-Bell Professional Development Workshops to educators and practitioners in Singapore and Sydney. He is passionate about helping people reach their potential and has worked directly with hundreds of children and their families to help them improve their language and literacy skills. Andy holds a master’s degree in Special Education from Macquarie University in Sydney, Australia and a bachelor’s degree in Psychology from Strathclyde University in Glasgow, Scotland. He began his career at Curo Salus in Scotland, an independent school and residential care home for children, where he provided therapeutic intervention. In 2012, Andy joined Lindamood-Bell Learning Processes in Australia and has held many leadership positions including Clinician, Mentor, Consultant, and Associate Centre Director.

Effects​ ​of​ ​Executive​ ​Attention​ ​Deficits​ ​in​ ​Children​ ​with​ ​Dyslexia:​ ​Beyond​ ​Phonology​ ​in bilingual​ ​dyslexics


Reading is one of the cognitive tasks that require high alert states; a large number of studies around the world demonstrated that frontoparietal regions of the brain are involved in the reading process. Parietal regions are also mandated to alert states, disruption of parietal regions leads to disruption of attention mechanism. Considerable evidence has shown that dyslexics have a disruptive attentional mechanism, which in turn influences the reading process. In our previous studies, we observed attention deficits among children with dyslexia (CWD). In this study, we explored the attention and phonological abilities of bilingual children with dyslexia. These abilities were examined with Attention Network Test (ANT) and phoneme awareness test (PA) respectively. Data were obtained from twenty-two children with dyslexia and compared with twenty-two age and IQ matched normal readers with an average age of 12 years (SD = 0.25 years). Observed the statistically significant difference in an ANT with no interaction effect. The group difference on alerting network implies an inability to enter into and maintain an alert state in activities that require high attention. The deficit on orienting network implies lesser or no reaction to the target cue, that in turn affected the performance. Finally, the deficit on the executive network implies an effort full control of attention, error monitoring and interface control. Therefore, a disruptive attentional mechanism in dyslexics could be one of the reasons for higher reaction times and lower accuracy compared to normal readers. Additionally, we observed a marginal difference in gender, which indicates a slight difference in performance levels of girls and boys. However, ANT male disadvantage was well pronounced, and the effect of gender was especially positive for boys who were dyslexic. But on word / non-word reading tests, we observed longer duration. To sum up, by directly addressing both attentional and phonological deficits with the same sample, it has been possible to test the applicability in rehabilitation contexts less frequently studied in the literature. Our results show a clear role of prominent attentional deficits and attenuated phonological processing. This deficit is not a general attention deficit; rather, it is specific to the process of alerting and executive attention. Consequently, strategies designed to enhance these attention networks should be considered while developing remedial training programs for children with dyslexia, to increase their success in academic and behavioral domains. At the same time, interesting venues for future research for the exploration of gender differences in dyslexia is apparent from these data.

Suvarna Rekha Chinta
Suvarna Rekha Chinta is a research scholar at IIIT-Hyderabad and also associated with Moolchand Neuro Center, Hyderabad, India as a consultant psychologist. Involved in research projects and developed tool "Read-Aid" an assistive tool for improving visual attention for dyslexic readers. Formerly employed as a therapist at Lakshmi Neuro Center, in giving cognitive training for post-surgery cases, developmental delayed, autistic and dyslexic children. Also served in an EGPA-PMTCT project for a period of 5 years. Certified trainer for Peer's and ABA. Passionate about exploring the cognitive, perceptual and attention issues associated with developmental disorders.